The tone of these chapters is almost uniformly one of imminent, exuberant expectancy Haran , Carroll This exuberant tone is then modulated somewhat in Blenkinsopp , and imminent expectancy mellows into a hope for a still bright, but somewhat more distant future.
The identifiable historical references of —notably those to Babylon and Cyrus—drop from view. As Balzer suggests, however, these shifts represents progression from, not tension with, the first half of DtI Balzer DtI is also a richly allusive text. Using slightly different criteria, Nurmela finds relatively more allusive than Nurmela ; cf. The fact that Nurmela finds 73 allusions in chapters suggests that there is more than ample material here for present purposes. DtI will also be a useful section because its implied reader may be identified with relative confidence.
Since chapter 35 demonstrates, not only close verbal and thematic parallels to , but similar intentions, allusions that appear within it would be eligible for consideration as well. Members of print cultures tend to assume universal literacy, universal access to written texts, and a watertight distinction between orature and literature Gitay These assumptions are questionable, to say the least. During the period of interest to the present study, Israelite culture and education was neither exclusively oral nor written, but oral-written Carr ,, et passim.
Instead, the Bible suggests that in this period there was a scribal elite to which the rest of society had recourse when writing or reading was needed See e.
Jeremiah The rest of society functioned with a lower level of literacy or none at all. In fact, it has been plausibly argued that much of the Bible was written and copied, not under the assumption that it would normally be encountered for the first time in this form, but as a memory aid for those who performed it orally. In addition, to identify a text as one alluded to by DtI does not demand a particular position on the form of that text at the time of the allusion Nurmela xi , but it does require a view of the text as a consistent and recognizable verbal sequence.
As noted above, however, the book of Isaiah is held together by a significant number of verbal correspondences across its sixty-six chapters. One is that when such internal questions have been the focus, as they have in many previous studies, usually the interest has been a diachronic theory of textual formation. It should also be noted that to use allusions to settle diachronic questions assumes the ability to settle questions of the direction of dependence—in other words, to determine which text is alluding and which is being alluded to.
Generally speaking, the criteria proposed for making such determinations have not been up to the task, even when applied in combination Schultz For instance, an allusion to, e. Deuteronomy Schultz , and it certainly functions differently for a reader of DtI in translation. Second, the methodologies of these studies have suffered at times from an unconscionable lack of rigor. Third, the interest of these studies has overwhelmingly not been verbal parallels per se, but a particular theory of origin and dating; unfortunately, these theories are then allowed to guide both the investigations of textual allusions and their conclusions.
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In general, the studies of Fishbane , Willey , Sommer , Schultz , and Nurmela have avoided these tendencies. It is with these that the present study primarily intends to interact.
She limits herself to texts that can be dated before DtI on other grounds, notably the Pentateuch, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Nahum, the Psalms, and Lamentations; the Pentateuch may pose a problem for some scholars, but few proposals date the latest layer in the Pentateuch any later than the end of the exile and a large body of scholarship dates it earlier Willey Willey ff. The present study will also attempt to focus more attention than did Willey on the level of contextual awareness demonstrated by the alluding text Nurmela viii; cf.
Schultz below. The present study owes a particular debt to Richard L. Lyons Previous studies often assumed that the closer two texts were in terms of lexis and syntax, the stronger the case for an allusion. This approximates the approach of the present study. The difficulties here are apparent. There is no syntactic resemblance at all between these texts; and while in the alluded-to text the phrase is a single poetic colon, in the alluding text it is distributed across a bicolon. More than once he is able to find allusions on the basis of shared lexical features even when these represent fairly common vocabulary, and are distributed across both texts in such a way that syntactic similarity is limited or nonexistent.
Indeed, both Schultz and the present 9 Translations are my own. For Nurmela, questions of the direction of dependence and therefore, diachronicity are overriding concerns, and he pays little attention to the pragmatic effects of an allusion and their function in the context of the alluding text.
In this respect his goals differ markedly from those of the present study. The matter, of course, requires an interpretive judgment. Citation formulae that name the source of borrowed language are extremely rare in the Hebrew Bible; in any event, as I have been arguing, were such identifying to occur it could nullify the pragmatic effects intended by the author cf. Therefore, what controls will ensure that a study of allusion confines itself to examples that are both convincing and useful? Previous approaches to allusion tended to assume that the closer the lexical and syntactic parallel between two texts, the more certain it is that there is a conscious relationship.
As noted above, this is not necessarily the case. In the Hebrew Bible, exact, sustained verbal parallels are rare, and those that do occur e. For this reason, an identical verbal sequence in two different texts is insufficient in itself to determine the presence of the kind of allusion that will be useful for present purposes Schultz Lexical and syntactic correspondences are baseline criteria, but other important considerations are also important. Such intentionality can be inferred from, e.
Beentjes Schultz —whether, i. Schultz notes that in studies of verbal parallels it is best to assess a small number of good examples as objectively as possible Schultz , which the selection below intends to represent. Each is a pair of texts that exhibits lexical and syntactic similarity not attributable to commonplace vocabulary. In each case there is scholarly consensus on the plausible availability of the alluded- to text to DtI. In this example noted by Nurmela the lexical parallel is exact if not extensive ; the restructuring is a neat inversion from an active to a passive construction.
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As for diachronic considerations, there is no difficulty in proposing the 10 Hebrew Bible citations are from the electronic Stuttgart Electronic Study Bible version 2. Leviticus Once this has occurred, however, Yahweh will remember both his covenant with the patriarchs Leviticus and the events of the Exodus v Minimally they will see themselves and the author as members together of a community that reads Leviticus 26 as the Word of God. Some could also call the broader context of the patriarchal and Exodus narratives to mind in a way that prepares for the further use of these motifs in DtI.
Grass dries up and flowers shrivel, when the breath of Yahweh blows on them. Grass dries up and flowers shrivel, but the word of our God will stand forever Isaiah But the mercy of Yahweh is forever and ever upon those who fear him.
Psalm In Psalm , Yahweh as creator is well aware of human frailty; it is this very frailty that moves him to forgive v Psalm thus closes a gap in the alluding text for those who are aware of it. Who created these? Yahweh is the eternal God, the Creator of the ends of the earth. Great is our Lord and abundant in strength; There is no counting-up his understanding Psalm ,5. This suggests that the alluded- to text is being consciously re-used.
The vocabulary is not unusual, and yet its occurrence in two such syntactically similar clauses in such close proximity makes a coincidence highly unlikely Nurmela , Paul f. In this respect Isaiah 42 is similar to Exodus If, however, Isaiah is alluding to the Golden Calf incident, then the Masoretic Text MT has preserved both the correct reading and a higher degree of perspicuity for the allusion than either of these ancient versions.
I act; who can reverse it? I kill and I bring to life again; I wound, and I heal; And there is none who can snatch out of my hand Deuteronomy There will be additional contextual effects for the reader of Isaiah who thinks of the Song of Moses, and this is a good example of how alluding and alluded-to texts become joined in a relationship of mutual interaction Schultz The phrase simply means to wrest an object from someone who does not want to give it up Paul Nurmela In this instance the direction-of-dependence question is acute.
Some Sommer n view the psalm as post- exilic and therefore incapable of having been alluded to by DtI. If Isaiah is a reference to the gates of Babylon mentioned in Herodotus I.
In this case it is helpful if not absolutely decisive to compare the way that each passage is situated into its context. In Isaiah 45, however, the transition from the first half of the verse is more abrupt, and b returns to the thought of b and repeats it so closely as to seem redundant Nurmela Their close verbal similarity makes this pair of texts useful for a comparison across translations in any case. For Yahweh then to cite a typical description of his deliverance of people and transfer it to a pagan king would have continued in the same vein.
And he split open the rock, And waters oozed out Isaiah But can he also give bread? Can he provide meat for his people? In Isaiah 48, the wording abruptly follows an exhortation to leave Babylon and to announce that Yahweh has redeemed his people DtI makes strong use of the Exodus motif, depicting the Return as a second Exodus which will be so spectacular that the first will be, and should be, forgotten e. Bosman An allusion to the psalm at the end of Isaiah 48 could easily have suggested the point on this cycle that the Return represents.
As Nurmela points out, there is no mention of a prayer in Isaiah , but it is explicit in the parallel Nurmela , making this another example of a gap in the alluding text that the context of the alluded-to text fills in for a SR who can activate it. Or with me is there no strength to deliver? Now you will see whether or not my word comes to pass Numbers Isaiah alludes to the plague on the Nile river Exodus , the Red Sea incident Exodus 14 , or most likely both; and immediately after these verses there is a probable allusion to the reflection on these narratives in Psalm Nurmela f.
The desperate situation addressed in Isaiah , however, is not the prospect of starvation, but the fact that Yahweh appears to have broken with his people as finally and irrevocably as a man who divorces his wife , cf. Deuteronomy The note of chiding in Isaiah 50 is thus deepened for a fully-aware reader, making this an example in which the broader context of the allusion is perhaps more important than the shared vocabulary itself Schultz Nahum The precise verbal similarity here is noted by most commentators North, Pieper , Willey f, Oswalt , Sommer , Baltzer , Nurmela , Smith n, Paul Discussion has mainly concerned whether one passage depends on the other and, naturally, in which direction.
Baltzer and Oswalt believe that this is simply a case of parallel usages of formulaic language; Smith and Pieper are noncommittal; North believes that Nahum is alluding to DtI; and Willey, Sommer, Nurmela, and Paul believe that DtI is alluding to Nahum.