Coutts, Xiaonan Li, Teresa M. Barnes, Brian M. Keyes, Craig L. Perkins, Sally E. Asher, S. Ozgiir and H. Lopatiuk, A. Osinsky and L. Kucheyev and C. Ip, S. Pearton, D. Norton, S. Pearton, J. Zavada, W M. Chen and I. Notes Formerly CIP. Includes bibliographical references and index. View online Borrow Buy Freely available Show 0 more links This is why Figure 2 only shows the XPS survey spectra in the limited lower binding energy range eV recalibrated with respect to XPS O1s spectral line obtained for our nanostructured ZnO thin films deposited under the abovementioned extremely different conditions.
Moreover, what is crucial for our research, an evident undesired contribution of C1s XPS lines is observed, which confirmed the strong C contamination at the surface of nanostructured ZnO samples under investigation.
On the basis of the information summarized in Table 1 , one can notice that the relative concentration of O atoms with respect to all other surface atoms for our nanostructured ZnO thin films is rather similar because it only varies in the range of 0. In turn, the relative concentration of Zn atoms with respect to all the surface atoms for our nanostructured ZnO thin films is rather similar because only varies in the range of 0. Crucially, the respected difference in Zn concentration is more than two times larger with respect to the accuracy.
In contrary to the above, the relative concentration of C atoms with respect to all the surface atoms for our nanostructured ZnO thin films is evidently different varies in the range 0. It means that the respected difference in C concentration is three times larger with respect to the accuracy. This last information is crucial because it helps to recognize and then interpret the role of undesired C contaminations at the surface of our nanostructured ZnO thin films.
Zinc oxide bulk, thin films and nanostructures : processing, properties and applications
This can be probably related to the existence of the specific additional forms of oxygen as well as carbon surface bondings. In order to solve this issue, during the next step of our XPS research, we have focused on the more precise analysis of the local surface chemistry of our nanostructured ZnO thin films, with a special emphasis on the specific surface bonding.
The obtained results are presented in Figure 3 , Figure 4 and Figure 5 , respectively, and interpreted below. The detailed verification of potential forms of O bondings at the surface of our nanostructured ZnO thin films was performed on the basis of deconvolution of XPS O1s after the respective linear background subtraction using the Gauss fitting procedure, and the obtained results are shown as the red curves in Figure 4. For both nanostructured ZnO samples, the XPS O1s lines consist of two components, which are shown as the blue and red curves, respectively.
These XPS C1s lines confirm the existence of undesired C contaminations appearing at the surface of our nanostructured ZnO thin films after their exposition to the air atmosphere during the transportation between the deposition chamber and XPS chamber.
However, in order to verify the existence of any specific surface bonding, their decomposition was performed after the respective linear background subtraction using the Gauss fitting procedure, and the obtained results are shown as the red curves in Figure 5. This last information confirms that, in the case of our nanostructured ZnO thin films, one can observe the contribution from the two types of different hydroxyl groups OH at their surface, i.
The presence of these hydroxyl groups can lead to the variation of local surface chemistry of our nanostructured ZnO thin films.
The different C concentrations at the surface of our nanostructured ZnO thin films are related to their nonstoichiometry, which can be directly correlated with their local surface morphology. This is probably why in this case, the lowest 0. It causes that these nanostructured ZnO thin films can be very sensitive mainly to the toxic gas species containing oxygen from the environment, like nitrogen dioxide NO 2. This is crucial because the high undesired concentration of C contamination including C—OH species always play a role of undesired barrier for instance toxic gas adsorption, especially at the lower working temperature, and can additionally strongly affect the uncontrolled sensor ageing effect.
With a constant deposition time of 1 h, this yielded deposition rates from 2.
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The gas flows were controlled by dedicated Mass Flow Controllers and the system that utilized a capacitative Baratron manometer in a feed-back loop with a throttle valve VAT, Haag, Switzerland for pressure control. The deposition chamber was pumped by a cryogenic pump and the throttle valve was at the entrance to the pump.
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Si wafers were used as the substrates. In order to remove any native oxides, prior to the ZnO nanostructured thin films deposition, the substrates were firstly degreased by boiling in selected organic solutions and bathed in the buffered HF solution to strip the oxide. The technological details concerning preparation of nanostructured ZnO thin films can be found elsewhere [ 19 ].
Zinc Oxide Bulk, Thin Films and Nanostructures
The surface chemistry together with the possible contaminations of the abovementioned nanostructured ZnO thin films have been examined by XPS method. Other experimental details have been described elsewhere [ 29 , 30 , 31 ]. The MultiMode8 head is placed on a specific table VT model equipped with pneumatic isolation system against vibrations, combined with the air compressor, which allows for the elimination of undesired mechanical vibrations of the surroundings.
Basing on these experimental results, we were able to obtain the crucial information on: 1 the total relative concentrations of main elements combined with nonstoichiometry; 2 the existence of undesired C surface contaminations; and 3 the various forms of surface bondings. However, an exact gas sensor mechanism, including ageing effect in the case of various ZnO nanoforms, still remains unclear and requires further study. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript. Preface; What is Nanotechnology? This book is an overview of the strategies to generate high-quality films of one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures on flexible substrates e.
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